Interventional Radiology" (IR) refers to a range of techniques that rely on the use of radiological image guidance (X-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasound, computed tomography [CT], or magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) to precisely target therapy.
Most IR treatments are minimally invasive alternatives to open and laparoscopic (keyhole) surgery. As many IR procedures start with passing a needle through the skin to the target it is sometimes called pinhole surgery!
The essential skills of an interventional radiologist are in diagnostic image interpretation and the manipulation of needles and the use of fine catheter tubes and wires to navigate around the body under imaging control.
Interventional radiologists are doctors who are trained in radiology and interventional therapy. No other specialty possesses this unique combination of skills!
Well recognized advantages of these minimally invasive techniques include reduced risks, shorter hospital stays, lower costs, greater comfort, quicker convalescence, and return to work. The effectiveness of treatment is often better than with traditional treatments.
There is hardly any area of hospital medicine where IR has not had some impact on patient management. Although the interventional radiologist has many techniques at his/her disposal these fall into some categories:
Vascular Interventional Procedures
• Diagnostic Angiography
• Endovascular Treatment of Cerebral Aneurysms
• Endovascular treatment of Arterio-Venous Malformation
• Endovascular treatment of Stroke
• Endovascular treatment of Carotid Artery Stenosis
• Endovascular Treatment of Aortic Aneurysms, EVAR-TEVAR
• Endovascular treatment of Aortic Dissection
• Endovascular treatment of Aorta-Iliac Occlusion
• Endovascular treatment of Periferic Arterial Disease (balloon dilatation- stent placement)
• Endovascular treatment of Renal Artery Stenosis
• Embolization of Myoma Uteri
• Treatment of varicose veins without surgery (ablation, sclerotherapy)
• Endovascular treatment of active bleeding without surgery
• Subcutaneous port placement for Chemotherapy
Interventional Oncological Procedures
• Percutaneous ablation treatments (Radiofrequency, Microwave or cryoablation) of Liver-Lung or Kidney Tumor
• Percutaneous Biliary Drainage, Cholodechal stent placement
• Percutaneous Drainage of Liquid Collections
• Coliak Ganglion Block for Pain Treatment of the Especially Pancreatic Cancers
Non-vascular Interventional Procedures
• Thyroid needle aspiration biopsy
• Tru-cut biopsy (breast, liver, kidney, lung, and the others)
• Ablation treatment of the thyroid nodules
• Epidural steroid injection for the lumbal pain treatment
• A percutaneous nephrostomy or double J stent placement for urinary tract problems
• Percutaneous Cyst Hydatid Treatment
• Percutaneous renal cyst treatment