Dentistry

Updated: Dec 2, 2021


Dentist




A dentist is a doctor who specializes in problems with the maxillofacial area. Dental doctor, dentist, etc. takes care of the oral cavity in case of dental problems of any complexity. The doctor will help eliminate them without leaving a trace.


The profession of a dentist covers a fairly wide range of activities: treatment, prevention, surgery, prosthetics, occlusion correction and much more. Therefore, modern science has divided this branch of knowledge into several specific areas:


Dentist therapist. This is the most familiar specialist for each of us. He conducts an initial examination and deals with standard dental treatment - the elimination of caries, inflammatory processes and infectious diseases of the oral cavity. This is the first specialist that the patient gets to. His responsibilities include diagnostics, treatment or referral to a narrower specialist.


Dentist-orthopedist


This is a specialist who deals with the elimination of bite deformities and dental prosthetics. He knows all the features and nuances of these processes. Skills in prosthetics (removable, fixed, combined) and microprosthetics. Dentist-surgeon. This is a specialist who removes defects through surgical interventions. This doctor routinely deals with implantation and tooth extraction.


He can handle procedures aimed at preserving teeth, treating inflammatory processes and neoplasms of the oral cavity and small tumors of the face. He is engaged in the preparation of the mouth for the subsequent procedure of prosthetics, treatment of disease processes of the TMJ, trigeminal nerve and salivary glands.


His duties include surgical treatment of wounds of the face, mouth and neck, plastic and reconstruction of the jaw, diagnosis of common serious diseases based on their symptomatic manifestations in the face, mouth and neck. These usually include tuberculosis, syphilis, etc. Also, this specialist performs operations on the surfaces of the periodontium.


Maxillofacial surgeon


This specialist performs surgical interventions of varying complexity. They are deeper and more complex than those of a dental surgeon. Such surgical interventions are performed under general anesthesia and require a lot of knowledge and skills. Children's dentist. Milk teeth have their own specificity and a number of features. This specialist knows everything about their device and the correct methods of treatment. In addition, he is also a good psychologist. After all, it is not so easy to put a child in a dentist's chair.



Dentist-orthodontist


This is a specialist who works with dentoalveolar anomalies that have arisen as a result of natural processes: genetic predisposition, age-related changes or deformities due to tooth loss, or periodontal disease. Unlike an orthopedic dentist, he does not deal with cases that result from trauma.

All these specializations are grouped under the name of the profession “dentist”. They include a huge range of knowledge and skills. These specializations are irreplaceable.


carious

Diseases of teeth of non-carious origin:

Hypoplasia of the enamel. This disease, expressed in the appearance of dull spots or mottling on the surface of the tooth, is caused by a violation of the mineralization of its tissues, which can be caused by congenital underdevelopment of the enamel and a number of early childhood diseases (for example, rickets). For the purpose of treatment, enamel remineralization can be stimulated in one way or another; the general purpose of therapy in this case is to normalize mineral metabolism in the body.



Fluorosis of the enamel. This disease is manifested by the appearance of enamel defects: first, chalky spots appear on the surface of the tooth, then brown ones, and subsequently either point or linear flaws form in their place. It is usually caused by excess fluoride in drinking water or metabolic disorders. Preventive measures play an essential role in the fight against fluorosis. Treatment may consist, for example, of removing the affected area by grinding.


Wedge-shaped defect. The origin of the pathology is not known; it is assumed that it is caused by trophic damage to the organic skeleton of dentin and enamel. Its traditional location is the cervical part of the front teeth; the name is due to the fact that the shape of the defect is outwardly similar to a wedge. To eliminate it, sanding of the edges and filling are used - in cases where the dentin is deeply affected.


Pathological abrasion of teeth. Affected teeth are prone to gradual smoothing of the surface relief and to grinding, sometimes complete, of the coronal part. Possible causes of the disease include malocclusion, exposure to harmful factors, metabolic disorders. As the teeth wear out, the jaws draw closer, the shape of the face changes. It should be noted that such teeth are not prone to caries. The goal of treatment is to normalize metabolism, possibly prescribing calcium preparations.




Necrosis of hard tissues of teeth can be caused, for example, by exposure to chemicals - acids or alkalis. Teeth are more vulnerable to inorganic compounds of this kind than to organic ones. The destruction goes evenly over the entire surface of the tooth. In this case, prevention is important - neutralization of hazardous compounds, taking certain drugs, etc.



Hyperesthesia of the teeth. In this case, the degree of sensitivity of the teeth to various factors of influence, mainly physical (pressure, temperature, etc.), increases significantly. For treatment, fluorization is mainly used - rubbing sodium fluoride paste into the enamel, although in some cases crowns can also be installed to further isolate the teeth.


Erosion of the enamel of the teeth - damage to the enamel of the teeth, and in some cases, the dentin.

• Tooth trauma - acute and chronic.


Caries and its complications


Caries is a pathological process that begins after eruption of teeth, accompanied by demineralization and proteolysis, with the formation of a cavity under the influence of endo- and exogenous factors. Caries is a very common disease. In childhood, it ranks first among chronic diseases and occurs 5-8 times more often than the second most common disease, bronchial asthma.


Pulpitis inflammation of the neurovascular bundle of the tooth (pulp). Most often, pulpitis is a complication of caries, and can also be the result of erroneous actions when preparing a tooth for orthopedic structures, poor-quality fillings, periodontal surgery, exposure to chemicals).


Cases of retrograde pulpitis (i.e. infection through the apical foramen) have also been described.Pulpitis is classified as acute or chronic. Acute pulpitis is understood as a condition when the infection has penetrated into the pulp with a closed pulp chamber (through a thin wall of a tooth destroyed by caries).


Chronic pulpitis is most often the outcome of an acute one. Chronic pulpitis is divided into fibrous, hypertrophic and gangrenous. The main form of chronic pulpitis is fibrous pulpitis, in which fibrous connective tissue grows.


The main signs of acute pulpitis are very strong, radiating (spreading) along the branches of the trigeminal nerve (with acute focal pulpitis, there is no irradiation, the patient can clearly indicate a painful tooth) pains that intensify at night. The pains are intermittent.



Periodontitis is an inflammation of the periodontium, characterized by a violation of the integrity of the ligaments that hold the tooth in the alveolus, the cortical plate of the bone surrounding the tooth and bone resorption from small sizes to the formation of large cysts. Infectious periodontitis is mainly a complication of caries.


Traumatic periodontitis occurs as a result of both a significant, one-time exposure (blow from a fall or hit in the face of hard heavy objects), and as a result of minor, but chronic trauma (overstated filling, biting off a wire or thread in the absence of adjacent teeth).



Periostitis - inflammation of the periosteum; in relation to the jaw, periostitis is often called a gumboil and is expressed in swelling of the gums, accompanied by severe pain. As a result of inflammatory diseases of the teeth (periodontitis and pulpitis), periostitis of the jaw may develop.



 teeth

Less commonly, the disease occurs after open jaw fractures and soft tissue wounds. Also, inflammation of the periosteum can manifest itself as a result of infection through the circulatory and lymphatic systems from infected organs.


The disease begins with a slight swelling of the gums. Later, the swelling increases, and with it the pain increases. After a day or two, an abscess forms, which causes swelling of the cheeks and lips.


Diseases of the oral mucosa


Inflammatory diseases of the mucous membrane are collectively called stomatitis. They are the least studied, and currently many issues related to their etiology, pathogenesis and treatment do not have a solution. It is known, however, that there is a certain relationship between these pathologies and systemic diseases of the body. A unified classification of stomatitis has not been developed at present either, however, proposals have been made to implement it, for example, on an etiological basis. From this point of view, stand out:Traumatic stomatitis resulting from physical or chemical damage to the mucous membrane;


Symptomatic stomatitis resulting from another, more general disease;


• Infectious stomatitis caused by viral or bacterial infection;


• Specific stomatitis (fungal, radiation, etc.)


In turn, according to clinical manifestations, stomatitis are divided into catarrhal, ulcerative and aphthous.


Catarrhal stomatitis occurs most often and is caused by certain local factors: non-observance of oral hygiene, tooth decay, the appearance of deposits on them, and so on. With this type of disease, the mucous membrane becomes hyperemic, swells, plaque forms on it, the gums are sore and bleeding. Bad breath may also occur. During treatment, the local causes of the disease are first eliminated, and then an antiseptic treatment is performed, followed by repeated rinsing of the oral cavity.


Ulcerative stomatitis - a more severe form than catarrhal; it can develop both as a consequence and independently. Studies have linked this type of inflammation with gastric ulcer or chronic enteritis. While catarrhal stomatitis affects only the surface of the mucous membrane, ulcerative stomatitis affects all its layers. In this case, various kinds of necrotic ulcers are formed, and in some cases the process can reach osteomyelitis.The initial symptoms are similar to those for catarrhal stomatitis, however, with the ulcerative form, general intoxication, headache, and fever are also noted.


Local treatment includes antiseptic and anesthetic oral irrigation; general therapy may include taking antibiotics or antihistamines.


Aphthous stomatitis is characterized by the appearance of aphtha - small ulcers or erosions, single or multiple. Its etiology is not completely clear, although aphthous stomatitis is also associated with a number of diseases from allergies to rheumatism. Symptoms may include general malaise, fever, and soreness in the aft area. Treatment is also local (disinfection, pain relief) and general (antibiotics, anti-inflammatory drugs, etc.). Aphthous stomatitis can be acute or chronic.


Cheilitis is a selective lesion of the mucous membrane of the lip.


• Glossitis is a selective lesion of the mucous membrane of the tongue.

• Elements of lesions of the oral mucosa.